Jupiter (Jove)

      Jupiter was the son of Ops and Saturn (Saturn ruled all the Titans who were at that time the rulers of the world). Jupiter overthrew his father and defeated the Titans to become the ruler of the gods. After he became head of the gods he granted his brother Neptune dominion over the Sea, and his other brother Pluto dominion over the underworld. He married Juno who was also his sister. Jupiter was the most important Roman god, continuously evolving with Roman needs. In the early Republican era, when Rome was an agricultural city, he appeared as an agricultural god in charge of:

The heavens (Jupiter Caelestis)
Sun and moonlight (Jupiter Lucetius)
Rain (Jupiter Pluvius)
Thunder (Jupiter Tonans)
Lightning (Jupiter Elicius) or Fulgurator (sender of lightning)
Sowing (Jupiter Dapalis)
Creative forces (Jupiter Liber)
The boundary stones of fields (Jupiter Terminus)
Jupiter associated with the original umbrian capitoline god of oaks, Grabovius (Jupiter Grabovius)

      As Rome developed into a city of commerce and military force, Jupiter evolved into a protector of the city and state of Rome. The Romans worshipped him especially as Jupiter Optimus Maximus (all-good, all-powerful). This name refers not only to his rulership over the universe, but also to his function as the god of the state who distributes laws, controls the realm and makes his will known through oracles. He was also regarded as the guardian of public morality, being concerned with oaths treaties, alliances, and wars. This led to the practice of swearing in his name, "By Jupiter" Or "By Jove". Socially Jupiter was also concerned with the citizen's duties toward the gods, state, and family and with the most ancient and sacred form of marriage. His annual dedication festival was observed on the 13th of September, the day on which the consuls of the republic took office. In this later era he could also be invoked through a variety of titles, each dependent on the responsibilities being requested of him:

Jupiter Fidius (Guardian of law, defender of truth, and protector of justice and virtue)
Jupiter Conservator Orbis (Protector of the Empire)
Jupiter Conservator Augustorum (Protector of the Emperor)
Jupiter Stator (Jupiter "The Stayer" caused troops to stop fleeing and stand their ground, turning defeat into victory)
Jupiter Feretius (who stood for "the maker of agreements", "he who blesses the weapons" or "he who strikes")
Jupiter Fulgur (Any place struck by lightning was sacred to Jupiter Fulgur)
Jupiter Pistor (the protector of bakers)
Jupiter Victor (led the Roman armies to victory)
Jupiter Ultor (the avenger)
Jupiter Latiaris (god of the Latins ie. the Roman people)
Jupiter Protector (as protector of the state or defenders)

      His main temple was the "Capitolim Vetus", situated on the Capitoline Hill in Rome, which he shared with Juno (his sister and consort) and Minerva, to form the Capitoline Triad which became the central cult of the Roman state. Most temples dedicated to Jupiter where located on hills as these where closest to the heavens. His temple was not only the most important sanctuary in Rome, it was also the center of political life. Here official offerings were made, treaties were signed and wars were declared, and the triumphant generals of the Roman army came here to give their thanks.

      On coins Jupiter is usually depicted standing naked with only a chlamys hanging over his shoulder he's often holding out a victoriola and holds a long scepter. His symbols include the eagle and thunderbolt. The most common used Jupiter inscription is IOVI CONSERVATORI (AVG or CAES) meaning Jupiter the protector of our Augustus or Caesar.